Tldr

The hierarchical deterministic (HD) wallet is a standard defined by theBitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 32. It allows for the creation of a tree-like structure of keys from a single seed. This structure is useful for creating a wallet that can generate a large number of addresses and keys without needing to store them all.

Cite

- Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) wallets allow you to manage a near infinite number of accounts with just one secret recovery phrase
- HD wallets were introduced with the BIP-39 standard, and today they are the most popular type of wallet due to their convenience.
- HD wallets let you back up your entire wallet in ease, plus, they also allow you to recover your original wallet on whichever HD wallet interface you choose.

## 🔗 Quick Links

- Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 32
- Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 39
- BIP-32: Understanding Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets

## 🌐 Overview

Hierarchical Deterministic (HD) wallets are a type ofcryptocurrency wallets that allow for the generation of multiple private and public keys from a single master key (seed). They are based on the BIP-32 (Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 32) standard, which introduces a hierarchical structure of keys.

The functioning principle of Hierarchical Deterministic wallets relies on using deterministic algorithms to generate keys based on the master key. The master key, typically generated as a sequence of random words (e.g., 12 or 24 words), is used to generate a tree-like structure of keys.

The hierarchical structure of keys allows for organizing keys in a hierarchical manner, which is useful for creating structures such as multi-user wallets, multi-device wallets, and creating backups. Keys are generated at different levels in the tree, allowing for easy management.

The advantages of Hierarchical Deterministic wallets include:

- Easy creation and management of multiple addresses.
- Ability to create backups using a single master key.
- Reduced risk of fund loss since only the master key needs to be remembered or securely stored.

Hierarchical Deterministic wallets are often open source, meaning their code is publicly available for inspection, auditing, and modification by the community. Examples of such wallets include popular cryptocurrencywalletsoftware likeElectrum,Ledger Live, andTrezor Suite.

## 📈 Visualization

Source: Harsha Goli

## ℹ️ Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 32

Info

## Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 32

RECENT CHANGES:

- (16 Apr 2013) Added private derivation for i ≥ 0x80000000 (less risk of parent private key leakage)
- (30 Apr 2013) Switched from multiplication by I
_{L}to addition of I_{L}(faster, easier implementation)- (25 May 2013) Added test vectors
- (15 Jan 2014) Rename keys with index ≥ 0x80000000 to hardened keys, and add explicit conversion functions.
- (24 Feb 2017) Added test vectors for hardened derivation with leading zeros
- (4 Nov 2020) Added new test vectors for hardened derivation with leading zeros
BIP: 32 Layer: Applications Title: Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets Author: Pieter WuilleComments-Summary: No comments yet. Comments-URI: https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/wiki/Comments:BIP-0032 Status: Final Type: Informational Created: 2012-02-11 License: BSD-2-Clause Abstract

This document describes hierarchical deterministic wallets (or “HD Wallets”): wallets which can be shared partially or entirely with different systems, each with or without the ability to spend coins.

The specification is intended to set a standard for deterministic wallets that can be interchanged between different clients. Although the wallets described here have many features, not all are required by supporting clients.

The specification consists of two parts. In a first part, a system for deriving a tree of keypairs from a single seed is presented. The second part demonstrates how to build a wallet structure on top of such a tree.

Copyright

This BIP is licensed under the 2-clause BSD license.

Motivation

The Bitcoin reference client uses randomly generated keys. In order to avoid the necessity for a backup after every transaction, (by default) 100 keys are cached in a pool of reserve keys. Still, these wallets are not intended to be shared and used on several systems simultaneously. They support hiding their private keys by using the wallet encrypt feature and not sharing the password, but such “neutered” wallets lose the power to generate public keys as well.

Deterministic wallets do not require such frequent backups, and elliptic curve mathematics permit schemes where one can calculate the public keys without revealing the private keys. This permits for example a webshop business to let its webserver generate fresh addresses (public key hashes) for each order or for each customer, without giving the webserver access to the corresponding private keys (which are required for spending the received funds).

However, deterministic wallets typically consist of a single “chain” of keypairs. The fact that there is only one chain means that sharing a wallet happens on an all-or-nothing basis. However, in some cases one only wants some (public) keys to be shared and recoverable. In the example of a webshop, the webserver does not need access to all public keys of the merchant’s wallet; only to those addresses which are used to receive customer’s payments, and not for example the change addresses that are generated when the merchant spends money. Hierarchical deterministic wallets allow such selective sharing by supporting multiple keypair chains, derived from a single root.

Specification: Key derivation

=Conventions=

In the rest of this text we will assume the public key cryptography used in Bitcoin, namely elliptic curve cryptography using the field and curve parameters defined by secp256k1 (http://www.secg.org/sec2-v2.pdf). Variables below are either:

- Integers modulo the order of the curve (referred to as n).
- Coordinates of points on the curve.
- Byte sequences.
Addition (+) of two coordinate pair is defined as application of the EC group operation. Concatenation (||) is the operation of appending one byte sequence onto another.

As standard conversion functions, we assume:

- point(p): returns the coordinate pair resulting from EC point multiplication (repeated application of the EC group operation) of the secp256k1 base point with the integer p.
- ser
_{32}(i): serialize a 32-bit unsigned integer i as a 4-byte sequence, most significant byte first.- ser
_{256}(p): serializes the integer p as a 32-byte sequence, most significant byte first.- ser
_{P}(P): serializes the coordinate pair P = (x,y) as a byte sequence using SEC1’s compressed form: (0x02 or 0x03) || ser_{256}(x), where the header byte depends on the parity of the omitted y coordinate.- parse
_{256}(p): interprets a 32-byte sequence as a 256-bit number, most significant byte first.=Extended keys=

In what follows, we will define a function that derives a number of child keys from a parent key. In order to prevent these from depending solely on the key itself, we extend both private and public keys first with an extra 256 bits of entropy. This extension, called the chain code, is identical for corresponding private and public keys, and consists of 32 bytes.

We represent an extended private key as (k, c), with k the normal private key, and c the chain code. An extended public key is represented as (K, c), with K = point(k) and c the chain code.

Each extended key has 2

^{31}normal child keys, and 2^{31}hardened child keys. Each of these child keys has an index. The normal child keys use indices 0 through 2^{31}-1. The hardened child keys use indices 2^{31}through 2^{32}-1. To ease notation for hardened key indices, a number i_{H}represents i+2^{31}.=Child key derivation (CKD) functions=

Given a parent extended key and an index i, it is possible to compute the corresponding child extended key. The algorithm to do so depends on whether the child is a hardened key or not (or, equivalently, whether i ≥ 2

^{31}), and whether we’re talking about private or public keys.==Private parent key → private child key==

The function CKDpriv((k

_{par}, c_{par}), i) → (k_{i}, c_{i}) computes a child extended private key from the parent extended private key:

- Check whether i ≥ 2
^{31}(whether the child is a hardened key). ** If so (hardened child): let I = HMAC-SHA512(Key = c_{par}, Data = 0x00 || ser_{256}(k_{par}) || ser_{32}(i)). (Note: The 0x00 pads the private key to make it 33 bytes long.) ** If not (normal child): let I = HMAC-SHA512(Key = c_{par}, Data = ser_{P}(point(k_{par})) || ser_{32}(i)).- Split I into two 32-byte sequences, I
_{L}and I_{R}.- The returned child key k
_{i}is parse_{256}(I_{L}) + k_{par}(mod n).- The returned chain code c
_{i}is I_{R}.- In case parse
_{256}(I_{L}) ≥ n or k_{i}= 0, the resulting key is invalid, and one should proceed with the next value for i. (Note: this has probability lower than 1 in 2^{127}.)The HMAC-SHA512 function is specified in [http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4231 RFC 4231].

==Public parent key → public child key==

The function CKDpub((K

_{par}, c_{par}), i) → (K_{i}, c_{i}) computes a child extended public key from the parent extended public key. It is only defined for non-hardened child keys.

- Check whether i ≥ 2
^{31}(whether the child is a hardened key). ** If so (hardened child): return failure ** If not (normal child): let I = HMAC-SHA512(Key = c_{par}, Data = ser_{P}(K_{par}) || ser_{32}(i)).- Split I into two 32-byte sequences, I
_{L}and I_{R}.- The returned child key K
_{i}is point(parse_{256}(I_{L})) + K_{par}.- The returned chain code c
_{i}is I_{R}.- In case parse
_{256}(I_{L}) ≥ n or K_{i}is the point at infinity, the resulting key is invalid, and one should proceed with the next value for i.==Private parent key → public child key==

The function N((k, c)) → (K, c) computes the extended public key corresponding to an extended private key (the “neutered” version, as it removes the ability to sign transactions).

- The returned key K is point(k).
- The returned chain code c is just the passed chain code.
To compute the public child key of a parent private key:

- N(CKDpriv((k
_{par}, c_{par}), i)) (works always).- CKDpub(N(k
_{par}, c_{par}), i) (works only for non-hardened child keys). The fact that they are equivalent is what makes non-hardened keys useful (one can derive child public keys of a given parent key without knowing any private key), and also what distinguishes them from hardened keys. The reason for not always using non-hardened keys (which are more useful) is security; see further for more information.==Public parent key → private child key==

This is not possible.

=The key tree=

The next step is cascading several CKD constructions to build a tree. We start with one root, the master extended key m. By evaluating CKDpriv(m,i) for several values of i, we get a number of level-1 derived nodes. As each of these is again an extended key, CKDpriv can be applied to those as well.

To shorten notation, we will write CKDpriv(CKDpriv(CKDpriv(m,3

_{H}),2),5) as m/3_{H}/2/5. Equivalently for public keys, we write CKDpub(CKDpub(CKDpub(M,3),2),5) as M/3/2/5. This results in the following identities:

- N(m/a/b/c) = N(m/a/b)/c = N(m/a)/b/c = N(m)/a/b/c = M/a/b/c.
- N(m/a
_{H}/b/c) = N(m/a_{H}/b)/c = N(m/a_{H})/b/c. However, N(m/a_{H}) cannot be rewritten as N(m)/a_{H}, as the latter is not possible.Each leaf node in the tree corresponds to an actual key, while the internal nodes correspond to the collections of keys that descend from them. The chain codes of the leaf nodes are ignored, and only their embedded private or public key is relevant. Because of this construction, knowing an extended private key allows reconstruction of all descendant private keys and public keys, and knowing an extended public key allows reconstruction of all descendant non-hardened public keys.

=Key identifiers=

Extended keys can be identified by the Hash160 (RIPEMD160 after SHA256) of the serialized ECDSA public key K, ignoring the chain code. This corresponds exactly to the data used in traditional Bitcoin addresses. It is not advised to represent this data in base58 format though, as it may be interpreted as an address that way (and wallet software is not required to accept payment to the chain key itself).

The first 32 bits of the identifier are called the key fingerprint.

=Serialization format=

Extended public and private keys are serialized as follows:

- 4 byte: version bytes (mainnet: 0x0488B21E public, 0x0488ADE4 private; testnet: 0x043587CF public, 0x04358394 private)
- 1 byte: depth: 0x00 for master nodes, 0x01 for level-1 derived keys, …
- 4 bytes: the fingerprint of the parent’s key (0x00000000 if master key)
- 4 bytes: child number. This is ser
_{32}(i) for i in x_{i}= x_{par}/i, with x_{i}the key being serialized. (0x00000000 if master key)- 32 bytes: the chain code
- 33 bytes: the public key or private key data (ser
_{P}(K) for public keys, 0x00 || ser_{256}(k) for private keys)This 78 byte structure can be encoded like other Bitcoin data in Base58, by first adding 32 checksum bits (derived from the double SHA-256 checksum), and then converting to the Base58 representation. This results in a Base58-encoded string of up to 112 characters. Because of the choice of the version bytes, the Base58 representation will start with “xprv” or “xpub” on mainnet, “tprv” or “tpub” on testnet.

Note that the fingerprint of the parent only serves as a fast way to detect parent and child nodes in software, and software must be willing to deal with collisions. Internally, the full 160-bit identifier could be used.

When importing a serialized extended public key, implementations must verify whether the X coordinate in the public key data corresponds to a point on the curve. If not, the extended public key is invalid.

=Master key generation=

The total number of possible extended keypairs is almost 2

^{512}, but the produced keys are only 256 bits long, and offer about half of that in terms of security. Therefore, master keys are not generated directly, but instead from a potentially short seed value.

- Generate a seed byte sequence S of a chosen length (between 128 and 512 bits; 256 bits is advised) from a (P)RNG.
- Calculate I = HMAC-SHA512(Key = “Bitcoin seed”, Data = S)
- Split I into two 32-byte sequences, I
_{L}and I_{R}.- Use parse
_{256}(I_{L}) as master secret key, and I_{R}as master chain code. In case parse_{256}(I_{L}) is 0 or parse_{256}(I_{L}) ≥ n, the master key is invalid.<img src=bip-0032/derivation.png>

Specification: Wallet structure

The previous sections specified key trees and their nodes. The next step is imposing a wallet structure on this tree. The layout defined in this section is a default only, though clients are encouraged to mimic it for compatibility, even if not all features are supported.

=The default wallet layout=

An HDW is organized as several ‘accounts’. Accounts are numbered, the default account ("") being number 0. Clients are not required to support more than one account - if not, they only use the default account.

Each account is composed of two keypair chains: an internal and an external one. The external keychain is used to generate new public addresses, while the internal keychain is used for all other operations (change addresses, generation addresses, …, anything that doesn’t need to be communicated). Clients that do not support separate keychains for these should use the external one for everything.

- m/i
_{H}/0/k corresponds to the k’th keypair of the external chain of account number i of the HDW derived from master m.- m/i
_{H}/1/k corresponds to the k’th keypair of the internal chain of account number i of the HDW derived from master m.=Use cases=

==Full wallet sharing: m==

In cases where two systems need to access a single shared wallet, and both need to be able to perform spendings, one needs to share the master private extended key. Nodes can keep a pool of N look-ahead keys cached for external chains, to watch for incoming payments. The look-ahead for internal chains can be very small, as no gaps are to be expected here. An extra look-ahead could be active for the first unused account’s chains - triggering the creation of a new account when used. Note that the name of the account will still need to be entered manually and cannot be synchronized via the block chain.

==Audits: N(m/*)==

In case an auditor needs full access to the list of incoming and outgoing payments, one can share all account public extended keys. This will allow the auditor to see all transactions from and to the wallet, in all accounts, but not a single secret key.

====Per-office balances: m/i

_{H}====When a business has several independent offices, they can all use wallets derived from a single master. This will allow the headquarters to maintain a super-wallet that sees all incoming and outgoing transactions of all offices, and even permit moving money between the offices.

====Recurrent business-to-business transactions: N(m/i

_{H}/0)====In case two business partners often transfer money, one can use the extended public key for the external chain of a specific account (M/i h/0) as a sort of “super address”, allowing frequent transactions that cannot (easily) be associated, but without needing to request a new address for each payment. Such a mechanism could also be used by mining pool operators as variable payout address.

====Unsecure money receiver: N(m/i

_{H}/0)====When an unsecure webserver is used to run an e-commerce site, it needs to know public addresses that are used to receive payments. The webserver only needs to know the public extended key of the external chain of a single account. This means someone illegally obtaining access to the webserver can at most see all incoming payments but will not be able to steal the money, will not (trivially) be able to distinguish outgoing transactions, nor be able to see payments received by other webservers if there are several.

Compatibility

To comply with this standard, a client must at least be able to import an extended public or private key, to give access to its direct descendants as wallet keys. The wallet structure (master/account/chain/subchain) presented in the second part of the specification is advisory only, but is suggested as a minimal structure for easy compatibility - even when no separate accounts or distinction between internal and external chains is made. However, implementations may deviate from it for specific needs; more complex applications may call for a more complex tree structure.

Security

In addition to the expectations from the EC public-key cryptography itself:

- Given a public key K, an attacker cannot find the corresponding private key more efficiently than by solving the EC discrete logarithm problem (assumed to require 2
^{128}group operations). the intended security properties of this standard are:- Given a child extended private key (k
_{i},c_{i}) and the integer i, an attacker cannot find the parent private key k_{par}more efficiently than a 2^{256}brute force of HMAC-SHA512.- Given any number (2 ≤ N ≤ 2
^{32}-1) of (index, extended private key) tuples (i_{j},(k_{ij},c_{ij})), with distinct i_{j}’s, determining whether they are derived from a common parent extended private key (i.e., whether there exists a (k_{par},c_{par}) such that for each j in (0..N-1) CKDpriv((k_{par},c_{par}),i_{j})=(k_{ij},c_{ij})), cannot be done more efficiently than a 2^{256}brute force of HMAC-SHA512. Note however that the following properties do not exist:- Given a parent extended public key (K
_{par},c_{par}) and a child public key (K_{i}), it is hard to find i.- Given a parent extended public key (K
_{par},c_{par}) and a non-hardened child private key (k_{i}), it is hard to find k_{par}.=Implications=

Private and public keys must be kept safe as usual. Leaking a private key means access to coins - leaking a public key can mean loss of privacy.

Somewhat more care must be taken regarding extended keys, as these correspond to an entire (sub)tree of keys.

One weakness that may not be immediately obvious, is that knowledge of a parent extended public key plus any non-hardened private key descending from it is equivalent to knowing the parent extended private key (and thus every private and public key descending from it). This means that extended public keys must be treated more carefully than regular public keys. It is also the reason for the existence of hardened keys, and why they are used for the account level in the tree. This way, a leak of account-specific (or below) private key never risks compromising the master or other accounts.

Test Vectors

=Test vector 1=

Seed (hex): 000102030405060708090a0b0c0d0e0f

- Chain m ** ext pub: xpub661MyMwAqRbcFtXgS5sYJABqqG9YLmC4Q1Rdap9gSE8NqtwybGhePY2gZ29ESFjqJoCu1Rupje8YtGqsefD265TMg7usUDFdp6W1EGMcet8 ** ext prv: xprv9s21ZrQH143K3QTDL4LXw2F7HEK3wJUD2nW2nRk4stbPy6cq3jPPqjiChkVvvNKmPGJxWUtg6LnF5kejMRNNU3TGtRBeJgk33yuGBxrMPHi
- Chain m/0
_{H}** ext pub: xpub68Gmy5EdvgibQVfPdqkBBCHxA5htiqg55crXYuXoQRKfDBFA1WEjWgP6LHhwBZeNK1VTsfTFUHCdrfp1bgwQ9xv5ski8PX9rL2dZXvgGDnw ** ext prv: xprv9uHRZZhk6KAJC1avXpDAp4MDc3sQKNxDiPvvkX8Br5ngLNv1TxvUxt4cV1rGL5hj6KCesnDYUhd7oWgT11eZG7XnxHrnYeSvkzY7d2bhkJ7- Chain m/0
_{H}/1 ** ext pub: xpub6ASuArnXKPbfEwhqN6e3mwBcDTgzisQN1wXN9BJcM47sSikHjJf3UFHKkNAWbWMiGj7Wf5uMash7SyYq527Hqck2AxYysAA7xmALppuCkwQ ** ext prv: xprv9wTYmMFdV23N2TdNG573QoEsfRrWKQgWeibmLntzniatZvR9BmLnvSxqu53Kw1UmYPxLgboyZQaXwTCg8MSY3H2EU4pWcQDnRnrVA1xe8fs- Chain m/0
_{H}/1/2_{H}** ext pub: xpub6D4BDPcP2GT577Vvch3R8wDkScZWzQzMMUm3PWbmWvVJrZwQY4VUNgqFJPMM3No2dFDFGTsxxpG5uJh7n7epu4trkrX7x7DogT5Uv6fcLW5 ** ext prv: xprv9z4pot5VBttmtdRTWfWQmoH1taj2axGVzFqSb8C9xaxKymcFzXBDptWmT7FwuEzG3ryjH4ktypQSAewRiNMjANTtpgP4mLTj34bhnZX7UiM- Chain m/0
_{H}/1/2_{H}/2 ** ext pub: xpub6FHa3pjLCk84BayeJxFW2SP4XRrFd1JYnxeLeU8EqN3vDfZmbqBqaGJAyiLjTAwm6ZLRQUMv1ZACTj37sR62cfN7fe5JnJ7dh8zL4fiyLHV ** ext prv: xprvA2JDeKCSNNZky6uBCviVfJSKyQ1mDYahRjijr5idH2WwLsEd4Hsb2Tyh8RfQMuPh7f7RtyzTtdrbdqqsunu5Mm3wDvUAKRHSC34sJ7in334- Chain m/0
_{H}/1/2_{H}/2/1000000000 ** ext pub: xpub6H1LXWLaKsWFhvm6RVpEL9P4KfRZSW7abD2ttkWP3SSQvnyA8FSVqNTEcYFgJS2UaFcxupHiYkro49S8yGasTvXEYBVPamhGW6cFJodrTHy ** ext prv: xprvA41z7zogVVwxVSgdKUHDy1SKmdb533PjDz7J6N6mV6uS3ze1ai8FHa8kmHScGpWmj4WggLyQjgPie1rFSruoUihUZREPSL39UNdE3BBDu76=Test vector 2=

Seed (hex): fffcf9f6f3f0edeae7e4e1dedbd8d5d2cfccc9c6c3c0bdbab7b4b1aeaba8a5a29f9c999693908d8a8784817e7b7875726f6c696663605d5a5754514e4b484542

- Chain m ** ext pub: xpub661MyMwAqRbcFW31YEwpkMuc5THy2PSt5bDMsktWQcFF8syAmRUapSCGu8ED9W6oDMSgv6Zz8idoc4a6mr8BDzTJY47LJhkJ8UB7WEGuduB ** ext prv: xprv9s21ZrQH143K31xYSDQpPDxsXRTUcvj2iNHm5NUtrGiGG5e2DtALGdso3pGz6ssrdK4PFmM8NSpSBHNqPqm55Qn3LqFtT2emdEXVYsCzC2U
- Chain m/0 ** ext pub: xpub69H7F5d8KSRgmmdJg2KhpAK8SR3DjMwAdkxj3ZuxV27CprR9LgpeyGmXUbC6wb7ERfvrnKZjXoUmmDznezpbZb7ap6r1D3tgFxHmwMkQTPH ** ext prv: xprv9vHkqa6EV4sPZHYqZznhT2NPtPCjKuDKGY38FBWLvgaDx45zo9WQRUT3dKYnjwih2yJD9mkrocEZXo1ex8G81dwSM1fwqWpWkeS3v86pgKt
- Chain m/0/2147483647
_{H}** ext pub: xpub6ASAVgeehLbnwdqV6UKMHVzgqAG8Gr6riv3Fxxpj8ksbH9ebxaEyBLZ85ySDhKiLDBrQSARLq1uNRts8RuJiHjaDMBU4Zn9h8LZNnBC5y4a ** ext prv: xprv9wSp6B7kry3Vj9m1zSnLvN3xH8RdsPP1Mh7fAaR7aRLcQMKTR2vidYEeEg2mUCTAwCd6vnxVrcjfy2kRgVsFawNzmjuHc2YmYRmagcEPdU9- Chain m/0/2147483647
_{H}/1 ** ext pub: xpub6DF8uhdarytz3FWdA8TvFSvvAh8dP3283MY7p2V4SeE2wyWmG5mg5EwVvmdMVCQcoNJxGoWaU9DCWh89LojfZ537wTfunKau47EL2dhHKon ** ext prv: xprv9zFnWC6h2cLgpmSA46vutJzBcfJ8yaJGg8cX1e5StJh45BBciYTRXSd25UEPVuesF9yog62tGAQtHjXajPPdbRCHuWS6T8XA2ECKADdw4Ef- Chain m/0/2147483647
_{H}/1/2147483646_{H}** ext pub: xpub6ERApfZwUNrhLCkDtcHTcxd75RbzS1ed54G1LkBUHQVHQKqhMkhgbmJbZRkrgZw4koxb5JaHWkY4ALHY2grBGRjaDMzQLcgJvLJuZZvRcEL ** ext prv: xprvA1RpRA33e1JQ7ifknakTFpgNXPmW2YvmhqLQYMmrj4xJXXWYpDPS3xz7iAxn8L39njGVyuoseXzU6rcxFLJ8HFsTjSyQbLYnMpCqE2VbFWc- Chain m/0/2147483647
_{H}/1/2147483646_{H}/2 ** ext pub: xpub6FnCn6nSzZAw5Tw7cgR9bi15UV96gLZhjDstkXXxvCLsUXBGXPdSnLFbdpq8p9HmGsApME5hQTZ3emM2rnY5agb9rXpVGyy3bdW6EEgAtqt ** ext prv: xprvA2nrNbFZABcdryreWet9Ea4LvTJcGsqrMzxHx98MMrotbir7yrKCEXw7nadnHM8Dq38EGfSh6dqA9QWTyefMLEcBYJUuekgW4BYPJcr9E7j=Test vector 3=

These vectors test for the retention of leading zeros. See [https://github.com/bitpay/bitcore-lib/issues/47 bitpay/bitcore-lib#47] and [https://github.com/iancoleman/bip39/issues/58 iancoleman/bip39#58] for more information.

Seed (hex): 4b381541583be4423346c643850da4b320e46a87ae3d2a4e6da11eba819cd4acba45d239319ac14f863b8d5ab5a0d0c64d2e8a1e7d1457df2e5a3c51c73235be

- Chain m ** ext pub: xpub661MyMwAqRbcEZVB4dScxMAdx6d4nFc9nvyvH3v4gJL378CSRZiYmhRoP7mBy6gSPSCYk6SzXPTf3ND1cZAceL7SfJ1Z3GC8vBgp2epUt13 ** ext prv: xprv9s21ZrQH143K25QhxbucbDDuQ4naNntJRi4KUfWT7xo4EKsHt2QJDu7KXp1A3u7Bi1j8ph3EGsZ9Xvz9dGuVrtHHs7pXeTzjuxBrCmmhgC6
- Chain m/0
_{H}** ext pub: xpub68NZiKmJWnxxS6aaHmn81bvJeTESw724CRDs6HbuccFQN9Ku14VQrADWgqbhhTHBaohPX4CjNLf9fq9MYo6oDaPPLPxSb7gwQN3ih19Zm4Y ** ext prv: xprv9uPDJpEQgRQfDcW7BkF7eTya6RPxXeJCqCJGHuCJ4GiRVLzkTXBAJMu2qaMWPrS7AANYqdq6vcBcBUdJCVVFceUvJFjaPdGZ2y9WACViL4L=Test vector 4=

These vectors test for the retention of leading zeros. See [https://github.com/btcsuite/btcutil/issues/172 btcsuite/btcutil#172] for more information.

Seed (hex): 3ddd5602285899a946114506157c7997e5444528f3003f6134712147db19b678

- Chain m ** ext pub: xpub661MyMwAqRbcGczjuMoRm6dXaLDEhW1u34gKenbeYqAix21mdUKJyuyu5F1rzYGVxyL6tmgBUAEPrEz92mBXjByMRiJdba9wpnN37RLLAXa ** ext prv: xprv9s21ZrQH143K48vGoLGRPxgo2JNkJ3J3fqkirQC2zVdk5Dgd5w14S7fRDyHH4dWNHUgkvsvNDCkvAwcSHNAQwhwgNMgZhLtQC63zxwhQmRv
- Chain m/0
_{H}** ext pub: xpub69AUMk3qDBi3uW1sXgjCmVjJ2G6WQoYSnNHyzkmdCHEhSZ4tBok37xfFEqHd2AddP56Tqp4o56AePAgCjYdvpW2PU2jbUPFKsav5ut6Ch1m ** ext prv: xprv9vB7xEWwNp9kh1wQRfCCQMnZUEG21LpbR9NPCNN1dwhiZkjjeGRnaALmPXCX7SgjFTiCTT6bXes17boXtjq3xLpcDjzEuGLQBM5ohqkao9G- Chain m/0
_{H}/1_{H}** ext pub: xpub6BJA1jSqiukeaesWfxe6sNK9CCGaujFFSJLomWHprUL9DePQ4JDkM5d88n49sMGJxrhpjazuXYWdMf17C9T5XnxkopaeS7jGk1GyyVziaMt ** ext prv: xprv9xJocDuwtYCMNAo3Zw76WENQeAS6WGXQ55RCy7tDJ8oALr4FWkuVoHJeHVAcAqiZLE7Je3vZJHxspZdFHfnBEjHqU5hG1Jaj32dVoS6XLT1=Test vector 5=

These vectors test that invalid extended keys are recognized as invalid.

- xpub661MyMwAqRbcEYS8w7XLSVeEsBXy79zSzH1J8vCdxAZningWLdN3zgtU6LBpB85b3D2yc8sfvZU521AAwdZafEz7mnzBBsz4wKY5fTtTQBm (pubkey version / prvkey mismatch)
- xprv9s21ZrQH143K24Mfq5zL5MhWK9hUhhGbd45hLXo2Pq2oqzMMo63oStZzFGTQQD3dC4H2D5GBj7vWvSQaaBv5cxi9gafk7NF3pnBju6dwKvH (prvkey version / pubkey mismatch)
- xpub661MyMwAqRbcEYS8w7XLSVeEsBXy79zSzH1J8vCdxAZningWLdN3zgtU6Txnt3siSujt9RCVYsx4qHZGc62TG4McvMGcAUjeuwZdduYEvFn (invalid pubkey prefix 04)
- xprv9s21ZrQH143K24Mfq5zL5MhWK9hUhhGbd45hLXo2Pq2oqzMMo63oStZzFGpWnsj83BHtEy5Zt8CcDr1UiRXuWCmTQLxEK9vbz5gPstX92JQ (invalid prvkey prefix 04)
- xpub661MyMwAqRbcEYS8w7XLSVeEsBXy79zSzH1J8vCdxAZningWLdN3zgtU6N8ZMMXctdiCjxTNq964yKkwrkBJJwpzZS4HS2fxvyYUA4q2Xe4 (invalid pubkey prefix 01)
- xprv9s21ZrQH143K24Mfq5zL5MhWK9hUhhGbd45hLXo2Pq2oqzMMo63oStZzFAzHGBP2UuGCqWLTAPLcMtD9y5gkZ6Eq3Rjuahrv17fEQ3Qen6J (invalid prvkey prefix 01)
- xprv9s2SPatNQ9Vc6GTbVMFPFo7jsaZySyzk7L8n2uqKXJen3KUmvQNTuLh3fhZMBoG3G4ZW1N2kZuHEPY53qmbZzCHshoQnNf4GvELZfqTUrcv (zero depth with non-zero parent fingerprint)
- xpub661no6RGEX3uJkY4bNnPcw4URcQTrSibUZ4NqJEw5eBkv7ovTwgiT91XX27VbEXGENhYRCf7hyEbWrR3FewATdCEebj6znwMfQkhRYHRLpJ (zero depth with non-zero parent fingerprint)
- xprv9s21ZrQH4r4TsiLvyLXqM9P7k1K3EYhA1kkD6xuquB5i39AU8KF42acDyL3qsDbU9NmZn6MsGSUYZEsuoePmjzsB3eFKSUEh3Gu1N3cqVUN (zero depth with non-zero index)
- xpub661MyMwAuDcm6CRQ5N4qiHKrJ39Xe1R1NyfouMKTTWcguwVcfrZJaNvhpebzGerh7gucBvzEQWRugZDuDXjNDRmXzSZe4c7mnTK97pTvGS8 (zero depth with non-zero index)
- DMwo58pR1QLEFihHiXPVykYB6fJmsTeHvyTp7hRThAtCX8CvYzgPcn8XnmdfHGMQzT7ayAmfo4z3gY5KfbrZWZ6St24UVf2Qgo6oujFktLHdHY4 (unknown extended key version)
- DMwo58pR1QLEFihHiXPVykYB6fJmsTeHvyTp7hRThAtCX8CvYzgPcn8XnmdfHPmHJiEDXkTiJTVV9rHEBUem2mwVbbNfvT2MTcAqj3nesx8uBf9 (unknown extended key version)
- xprv9s21ZrQH143K24Mfq5zL5MhWK9hUhhGbd45hLXo2Pq2oqzMMo63oStZzF93Y5wvzdUayhgkkFoicQZcP3y52uPPxFnfoLZB21Teqt1VvEHx (private key 0 not in 1..n-1)
- xprv9s21ZrQH143K24Mfq5zL5MhWK9hUhhGbd45hLXo2Pq2oqzMMo63oStZzFAzHGBP2UuGCqWLTAPLcMtD5SDKr24z3aiUvKr9bJpdrcLg1y3G (private key n not in 1..n-1)
- xpub661MyMwAqRbcEYS8w7XLSVeEsBXy79zSzH1J8vCdxAZningWLdN3zgtU6Q5JXayek4PRsn35jii4veMimro1xefsM58PgBMrvdYre8QyULY (invalid pubkey 020000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000007)
- xprv9s21ZrQH143K3QTDL4LXw2F7HEK3wJUD2nW2nRk4stbPy6cq3jPPqjiChkVvvNKmPGJxWUtg6LnF5kejMRNNU3TGtRBeJgk33yuGBxrMPHL (invalid checksum)
Acknowledgements

Link to original

- Gregory Maxwell for the original idea of type-2 deterministic wallets, and many discussions about it.
- Alan Reiner for the implementation of this scheme in Armory, and the suggestions that followed from that.
- Eric Lombrozo for reviewing and revising this BIP.
- Mike Caldwell for the version bytes to obtain human-recognizable Base58 strings.

## ℹ️ Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 39

Info

## Bitcoin Improvement Proposal (BIP) 39

BIP: 39 Layer: Applications Title: Mnemonic code for generating deterministic keys Author: Marek PalatinusPavol Rusnak Aaron Voisine Sean Bowe Comments-Summary: Unanimously Discourage for implementation Comments-URI: https://github.com/bitcoin/bips/wiki/Comments:BIP-0039 Status: Proposed Type: Standards Track Created: 2013-09-10 Abstract

This BIP describes the implementation of a mnemonic code or mnemonic sentence — a group of easy to remember words — for the generation of deterministic wallets.

It consists of two parts: generating the mnemonic and converting it into a binary seed. This seed can be later used to generate deterministic wallets using BIP-0032 or similar methods.

Motivation

A mnemonic code or sentence is superior for human interaction compared to the handling of raw binary or hexadecimal representations of a wallet seed. The sentence could be written on paper or spoken over the telephone.

This guide is meant to be a way to transport computer-generated randomness with a human-readable transcription. It’s not a way to process user-created sentences (also known as brainwallets) into a wallet seed.

Generating the mnemonic

The mnemonic must encode entropy in a multiple of 32 bits. With more entropy security is improved but the sentence length increases. We refer to the initial entropy length as ENT. The allowed size of ENT is 128-256 bits.

First, an initial entropy of ENT bits is generated. A checksum is generated by taking the first

`ENT / 32`

bits of its SHA256 hash. This checksum is appended to the end of the initial entropy. Next, these concatenated bits are split into groups of 11 bits, each encoding a number from 0-2047, serving as an index into a wordlist. Finally, we convert these numbers into words and use the joined words as a mnemonic sentence.The following table describes the relation between the initial entropy length (ENT), the checksum length (CS), and the length of the generated mnemonic sentence (MS) in words.

CS = ENT / 32 MS = (ENT + CS) / 11 | ENT | CS | ENT+CS | MS | +-------+----+--------+------+ | 128 | 4 | 132 | 12 | | 160 | 5 | 165 | 15 | | 192 | 6 | 198 | 18 | | 224 | 7 | 231 | 21 | | 256 | 8 | 264 | 24 |Wordlist

An ideal wordlist has the following characteristics:

a) smart selection of words

- the wordlist is created in such a way that it’s enough to type the first four letters to unambiguously identify the word
b) similar words avoided

- word pairs like “build” and “built”, “woman” and “women”, or “quick” and “quickly” not only make remembering the sentence difficult but are also more error prone and more difficult to guess
c) sorted wordlists

- the wordlist is sorted which allows for more efficient lookup of the code words (i.e. implementations can use binary search instead of linear search)
- this also allows trie (a prefix tree) to be used, e.g. for better compression
The wordlist can contain native characters, but they must be encoded in UTF-8 using Normalization Form Compatibility Decomposition (NFKD).

From mnemonic to seed

A user may decide to protect their mnemonic with a passphrase. If a passphrase is not present, an empty string "" is used instead.

To create a binary seed from the mnemonic, we use the PBKDF2 function with a mnemonic sentence (in UTF-8 NFKD) used as the password and the string “mnemonic” + passphrase (again in UTF-8 NFKD) used as the salt. The iteration count is set to 2048 and HMAC-SHA512 is used as the pseudo-random function. The length of the derived key is 512 bits (= 64 bytes).

This seed can be later used to generate deterministic wallets using BIP-0032 or similar methods.

The conversion of the mnemonic sentence to a binary seed is completely independent from generating the sentence. This results in a rather simple code; there are no constraints on sentence structure and clients are free to implement their own wordlists or even whole sentence generators, allowing for flexibility in wordlists for typo detection or other purposes.

Although using a mnemonic not generated by the algorithm described in “Generating the mnemonic” section is possible, this is not advised and software must compute a checksum for the mnemonic sentence using a wordlist and issue a warning if it is invalid.

The described method also provides plausible deniability, because every passphrase generates a valid seed (and thus a deterministic wallet) but only the correct one will make the desired wallet available.

Wordlists

Since the vast majority of BIP39 wallets supports only the English wordlist, it is '''strongly discouraged''' to use non-English wordlists for generating the mnemonic sentences.

If you still feel your application really needs to use a localized wordlist, use one of the following instead of inventing your own.

Test vectors

The test vectors include input entropy, mnemonic and seed. The passphrase “TREZOR” is used for all vectors.

https://github.com/trezor/python-mnemonic/blob/master/vectors.json

Also see https://github.com/bip32JP/bip32JP.github.io/blob/master/test_JP_BIP39.json

(Japanese wordlist test with heavily normalized symbols as passphrase)

Reference Implementation

Reference implementation including wordlists is available from

http://github.com/trezor/python-mnemonic

Other Implementations

Go:

Python:

Elixir:

Objective-C:

Haskell:

.NET (Standard):

.NET C# (PCL):

.NET C# (PCL):

JavaScript:

- https://github.com/bitpay/bitcore/tree/master/packages/bitcore-mnemonic
- https://github.com/bitcoinjs/bip39 (used by blockchain.info)
- https://github.com/dashhive/DashPhrase.js
- https://github.com/hujiulong/web-bip39
TypeScript:

Java:

Ruby:

Rust:

Smalltalk:

Swift:

- https://github.com/CikeQiu/CKMnemonic
- https://github.com/yuzushioh/WalletKit
- https://github.com/pengpengliu/BIP39
- https://github.com/matter-labs/web3swift/blob/develop/Sources/web3swift/KeystoreManager/BIP39.swift
- https://github.com/zcash-hackworks/MnemonicSwift
- https://github.com/ShenghaiWang/BIP39
- https://github.com/anquii/BIP39
C++:

C (with Python/Java/Javascript bindings):

Python:

Dart:

Link to original